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Maximiliano Ruiz Castañeda

Maximiliano Ruiz Castañeda, Mexican biomedical scientist (Acambay, Mexico State 05 December 1896 – Ciudad de Mexico 01 October 1992)

With H. Zinsser & H. Mooser identified murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) in 1930


Proposed the differential stain for the detection of rickettsiae and chlamydial elementary bodies in tissue samples (1930) 

With H. Zinsser. Method of obtaining large amounts of Rickettsia prowazeki by x-ray radiation of rats (1932)
Perfected a vaccine for exanthematic typhus known as Castañeda vaccine (1938)

Developed Ruiz Castañeda medium

With R. Tovar & R. Velez. Studies on brucellosis in Mexico. Comparative study of various diagnostic tests and classification of the isolate bacteria. J. Infect. Dis. 70:97-102, 1942

Developed bivalent vaccine for typhus (1944)

A serum agglutination technique in slides (1945)
Developed Castañeda rapid slide agglutination test for brucellosis 
A practical method for routine blood culture in brucellosis. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med. 64:114-5, 1947

Developed surface fixation method, forerunner of immunoblot

Surface fixation. A new method of detecting certain immunological reactions. Exp. Biol. Med. 73(1):46-9, 1950
Improved apparatus for the isolation of Brucella and Salmonella by hemoculture. Bull. World Health Organ. 14(4):795-6, 1956
With M.A. de los Corvera & J. Olarte. A new medium for the isolation of Brucella and Salmonella by blood culture. Bull. World Health Organ. 14(4):797, 1956
Rapid method for investigating the concentration of urea in the blood. Rev. Med. Hosp. Gen. 28(5): 369-71, 1965
Simplification of methods for the study of beta hemolytic Streptococcus in faryngeal exudates. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex. 33(2):481-5, 1976
With Y. Naranjo. Rapid test for diagnosis of syphilis by means of the surface fixation method using as antigens VDRL and Treponema pallidum (strain Nichols). Arch. Invest. Mex. 9(4):559-64, 1978  
A simple test for detection of specific and unspecific immunological reactions in cancer. Arch. Invest. Mex. 11(1):83-93, 1980 
With A. Lopez Merino & F. Ruiz-Reyes. Rapid test for the diagnosis of onchocercosis. Bol. Med. Hosp. Inf. Mexico 39(4):265-7, 1982 
Discovered an autovaccine procedure for allergies


Honorary Fellow, American Society of Immunology (1944)

Visiting Professor, Tulane University (1945-6)

Fellow, New York Academy of Sciences (1955)

Medicine & Physiology Nobel Prize nominee (1965)



Castañeda bottle for culture of Brucella

Ruiz Castañeda biphasic blood culture

Zinsser-Ruiz Castañeda method

Ruiz Castañeda reaction for typhoid (similar to Huddleson reaction)

Ruiz Castañeda reaction for brucellosis

Ruiz Castañeda staining for Rickettsiae (1930)