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Antonino dos Santos Rocha

Antonino dos Santos Rocha, Portuguese-born Brazilian nephrologist (Portugal 06 November 1936 – São Paulo 19 October 1990)

Internationally recognized as an authority on renal physiology and physiopathology   

A number of his works were considered international classics in the field

Discovered chloride channel on the Henle loop ascending limb

Proposed a new model of countercurrent system

With J.P. Kokko, F.C. Rector Jr & M. Imai. Experimental and theoretical evidence for the passive equilibration model of countercurrent multiplication system. Proc. 5th Intern. Congr. Nephrol. 2:91-6, 1972  

Performed the first direct experiments on the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and discovered that transepithelial potential difference across it is oriented lumen positive independently of Maurice B. Burg & Nordica Green

With J.P. Kokko. Sodium, chloride and water transport in the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle. Evidence of active chloride transport. J. Clin. Invest. 52:612, 1973

First work employing micropuncture in the functional study of glomerulopathies 

With M.M. Machado & G. Malnic. Micropuncture study in rats with experimental glomerulo-nephrites. Kidney Intern. 3(1):14, 1973

Described the K transport mechanism in this nephron segment and a process of K medullary re-circulation

With J.P. Kokko. Membrane characteristics regulating potassium transport out of the isolated perfused descending limb of Henle. Kidney Intern. 4:326-30, 1973

Clarified the mechanism of urea intrarenal re-circulation and the process by which the medullary nephron becomes hypertonics

With J.P. Kokko. Permeability of medullary nephron segments to urea and water. Effect of vasopressin. Kidney Intern. 6:379-87, 1974

With S. Tsuzuki, O.M. Gomes, N. Gushi, J.B. Magaldi & G. Verginelli. Bomba para infusão venosa contínua com baixo fluxo. Novo modelo (1974)

Analysed the calcium and phosphate transport in each segment of Henle loop

With J.B. Magaldi & J.P.Kokko. Calcium and phosphate transport in isolated segments of rabbit Henle’s loop. J. Clin. Invest. 59:875-93, 1977

Showed that papillary collecting duct plays a role in regulating the urinary excretion of chlorine and sodium ions and in maintenance of extracellular volume

With Lucia H. Kudo. Sodium chloride and electrical gradient across the isolated perfused papillary collecting duct. Anais 8th Internat. Congr. Nephrol. C5 (1978)

First to use rat as experimental model in microperfusion laboratory

With A.L.J. Almeida. Características funcionais da alça de Henle e ducto coletor do rato recém-nascido: estudo de microperfusão “in vitro”. Doctoral Thesis, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo (1979)

Showed diferences between papillary collecting duct and cortical tubule in relation to sodium and potassium transport and physiological and physiopathological roles

Heterogeneidade functional do ducto coletor: transporte de sódio e cloro. Efeito do lítio sobre a permeabilidade da agua. Thesis, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (1979)  


Showed that biggest part of filtrate calcium is reabsorbed in pars recta of proximal tubules and that this reabsorption occurs by a distinct mechanism in the upper portions of proximal tubules

With A.L.J. Almeida & L.H. Kudo. Calcium transport in isolated perfused pars recta of proximal tubule. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 14:43-9, 1981

Authored the first work dealing about the features of water and urea transport in human nephron segments

With L.H. Kudo. Water, urea, sodium, chloride and potassium transport in the “in vitro” isolated perfused papillary collecting duct. Kidney Internat. 22:485, 1982

First to show a model of in vitro cultured   papillary collecting duct cells from rat kidneys

With M. Ori. Cultura primária de células do ducto coletor papilar: transporte de sódio e incorporação de timidina (1984)

Other works with good repercussion

With L.H. Kudo. Chloride and sodium secretion by rat papillary collecting duct.  

Permeability of medullary nephron segments to urea and water. Effect of vasopressin. Kidney International 6:379, 1974

With J.B. Magaldi. Calcium and phosphate transport in isolated segments of rabbit’s Henle loop. J. Clin. Invest. 59:975, 1977

With M.I.P. Leão, C.M.B. Helou, R. Costa & J.B. Magaldi. Mecanismo de espoliação de potássio produzida pela furosemida. Rev. Bras. Pesq. Med. Biol. 12(6):391-9, 1979