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Sergio Porto

Sergio Pereira da Silva Porto, Brazilian physicist (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State 19 January 1926 – Novosibirski, Siberia 21 June 1979) 
Recognized as world authority in spectroscopy and laser
His laboratory at Bell Labs became one of the most important laboratories in the field of solid state spectroscopy 
Authored over 150 papers

First to use laser radiation as an excitation source in Raman spectroscopy 

With D. L. Wood. Ruby optical maser as a Raman source. Optical Society of America 52(3): 1962.

With H. Kogelnik first to obtain Raman spectra using He-Ne continuous laser (1963)


With N. Jannuzzi. New singlet transitions in the near infrared spectrum of molecular hydrogen. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, 11(15):378-384, 1963.


With A.A. Ballman & A. Yariv. Calcium Niobate Ca(NbO3)2: a new laser host crystal. J. Appl. Physics. American Institute of Physics, 34(11): 3155 - 3136, 1963.


First to observe Raman scattering from F centers


With J.M. Worlock. Raman scattering by F centers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 15:697-9, 1965

Co-discovered thermal lens effect

With J.P. Gordon, R.S. Moore, J.R. Whinnery & R.C. C. Leite. Long transient effects in laser with insert liquid samples. J. Appl. Physics 36:3, 1965

First to observe polaritons in ionic crystals

With B. Tell & T.C. Damen. Near forward Raman scattering in zinc oxide. Phys. Rev. Lett. 16:450-2, 1966

Introduced Porto notation

With T.C. Damen & B. Tell. Raman effect in zinc oxide. Phys. Rev. 142:570-4, 1966

First to observe light scattering  from spin waves

With P. A. Fleury, L.E. Cheesman & H.J. Guggenheim. Light scattering by spin waves in FeF2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 17:84-7, 1966
Co-discovered resonance Raman effect
With R. C. C. Leite. Enhancement of the Raman cross section in Cdc  due to resonant Absorption. Physical Review Letters 17:538, 1966 
First to observe optical activity in Raman spectra
With J.F. Scott. Longitudinal and transverse optical lattice vibrations in quartz. Phys. Rev. 161:903-10, 1967

Observed Raman cross-section of gases

With A. Weber, L.E. Cheesman & J.J. Barrett. High resolution Raman spectroscopy of gases with CW-laser excitation. J. Optic Soc. Am. 5:9-28, 1967

Observed anti-symmetric electronic Raman scattering

With A. Kiel, T.C. Damen, S. Singh & F. Varsanyi. Asymmetry in the electronic and phonon Raman effects in CeCl3. IEEE J. Quant. Elect. 4:318, 1968
With A. Kiel. Selection rules for electronic Raman effect. J. Molecular Spectroscopy 32(3):458-68, 1969 

Observed symmetry-forbidden first-order Raman spectra in disordered solids

With P.F. Williams. Symmetry-forbidden resonant Raman scattering in Cu2O. Phys. Rev. B 8:1782-5, 1973 

Generalized Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation for ordered-disordered crystals 

With A.S. Chaves. Generalized Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation. Solid State Communications 13:865-8, 1973

Observed dynamic disorder in crystals using Raman scattering

With A. S. Chaves & R.S. Katiyar. Coupled modes with A1 symmetry in tetragonal BaTiO3. Phys. Rev. B 10:3522-33, 1974

Discovered a process for obtaining heavy water (1979)



With J. A. H. de Freitas et al. performed the first in the world glaucoma operation employing argon laser (1975)

Developed the first in the world technique of tympanum transplant in man employing laser

With L. H. Escudero, A.O. Castro, M. Drumond, D.G. Bozinis, A.F.S. Penna & E. Gallego-Lluesma. Argon laser in Human Tympanoplasty. American Medical Association 105:252, 1979
Proposed using laser for uranium isotopic separation  


A quantitative and Easily operated x – rays detecter. May 1961


With C. A. Arguello & D.L. Rousseau. A Double beam raman spectrometer.


With D. Landon. A tandem spectrometer to detect laser - exited Raman radiation. Appl. Optics. 4: 762, 1962.


With R. C. C. Leite. A simple method for calibration of ruby laser output. Sep. Proc. IEEE 51(4): 1963.


With C. T.Lin, T. D. Z. Atvars et al. A low cost and high efficiency helium recycling system for CO2 laser.


With A. Szule, J. Pereira Neto, J. Rezende et al. Construction and perfomance of a high resolution grating spectrometer. Anais Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 1960. 32(1): 25-30, 1960.


With Gary D. Boyd, Phase - Matched Raman Radiation Amplifier and Oscillator. U.S. Patent Office jan. 24, 1967.


With N. Nassau & A. Yariv. Optical maser comprising the active medium CaWO4:Pr. U. S. Patent Office no 3,258,716, 258, 716. jun. 28, 1966.

With W. Proffitt, L.M. Fraas & P. Cervenka. An interferometric rejection filter for Raman spectroscopy. Appl. Opt. 10:531, 1971