Alphabetical List‎ > ‎L‎ > ‎

Luis Federico Leloir

Luis Federico Leloir Aguirre, Argentine biochemist (Paris 06 September 1906 – Buenos Aires 02 December 1987)

 

 

  

ACHIEVEMENTS

Obtained with Juan Mauricio Muñoz, the first free-cell oxidative system (1939)

 

Discovered angiotensin with E. Braun-Menendez, J.C. Fasciolo and J.M. Muñoz (1939), a discovery independent from Page and Helmer 

 

With E. Braun-Menendez, J.C. Fasciolo and A. Taquini described enzymatic nature of renin-angiotensin system and its link to arterial hypertension

 

Discovered sugar nucleotides, determined its chemical nature and showed that play a key role in sugar interconversion and polysaccharides synthesis (1948)  with R. Caputto, C.E. Cardini and A. Paladini

 

Showed that biosynthesis of sugar and sugar-derivatives compounds are essentially transfer reactions

 

Isolated glucose 1,6 diphosphate known as Leloir ester (1948), uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP) in 1950, uridine diphosphate acetyl glucosamine and guanosine diphosphate mannose (1953) 

 

With R. Caputto discovered general synthetic mechanism of disaccharides in yeasts, showing the same mechanism in plants (1950) 

 

Demonstrated sucrose synthesis from uridine diphosphate glucose and fructose

 

With C. Cardini established that in plant tissues two reactions can lead to synthesis of sucrose (1953-5)

With C. Cardini suggested the involvement of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine in chitin synthesis (1953)

With E. Cabib first demonstrated the participation of UDPG in the biosynthesis of disaccharides in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75:5445, 1953
 

Discovered glycogen synthase
 

Synthesized trehalose with Enrico Cabib (1953) and sucrose with Carlos Eugenio Cardini and J. Chiriboga (1955)

 

Showed the enzyme that transfer glucose from UDP-glucose to glycogen (1957)

With C.E. Cardini described an alternative mechanism for synthesis of glycogen from UDP-glucose and glycogen synthase (1957)

 

With R. Caputto discovered and determined structure of glucose-1,6 di-phosphate (1958)

 

With Yamaha & Cardini demonstrated that glycosides synthesis via UDPG (1960)

 

With Fekete & Cardini discovered enzymatic system that catalyzes sucrose transformation into starch (1960)

 

With Frydman & Cardini demonstrated that phytoglycogen biosynthesis from ADP-glucose (1965)
 

Identified dolichols (1970)

 

Clarified transfer mechanism from oligosaccharides to proteins, elucidating the role of dolichol in proteins glycosylation  

 

Demonstrated the role of polyprenol in glucose metabolism

 

Elucidated primary mechanisms of galactose metabolism (Leloir pathway) and determined what causes galactosemia  

 

Discovered the central role of uridine diphosphate derivatives in the interconversion of galactose and glucose

 

 

Discovered the function of glycolipids as precursors of glycoproteins  

 

Clarified the mechanism of biosynthesis of glycoproteins (1970s)  


Established the basis of the pathway leading to the synthesis of glycoproteins in eukaryotic cells and also provided the first evidence indicating that the protein-linked oligosaccharides (glycoproteins) was processed 



METHODS

With J.L. Reissig & J.L. Strominger. A modified colorimetric method for the estimation of N-acetyl amino sugars. J. Biol. Chem. 217(2):959-66, 1955

With E. Cabib & H.G. Pontis. An improved method for the isolation of some nucleoside diphosphate sugar from yeast. Biochem. Biophys. (1957) 

With Cabib and Cardini suggested the use of sodium chloride in dilute hydrochloric acid for eluting nucleotides from a column of ion-exchange resin and introduced the technique of purifying nucleotides with Norite 

 
 

EPONYMY  

Leloir ester (glucose 1,6diphosphate)

Leloir pathway or Leloir cycle or Leloir-Cardini cycle (galactose metabolism)

Leloir enzymes  (known as glycosyltransferases)

Leloir reaction (between glucose 1,6 diphosphate and mannose 1 phosphate)

Leloir-Cardini enzyme (UDP glucose glycogen transglucoxylase)

Leloir method for extraction of glycogen from liver by mercuric chloride

Leloir-Goldemberg method for determining enzymatic activity (with Sara H. Goldemberg)

Leloir-Trucco method for measuring kynase activity

Paladini-Leloir solvent

 
 

HONORS

Chemistry Nobel Prize (1970)

Gairdner Award (1966)

Louise Gross Horwitz Prize (1967)

Asteroid 2548 Leloir