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Enrique Gaviola

Ramón Enrique Gaviola Fornes, Argentine optical physicist and astronomer (Rivadavia, Mendoza Province 31 August 1900 – Mendoza 07 August 1989)
 
Authored over 60 scientific works
 
ACHIEVEMENTS
 

Atomic Physics

Built the first phase-shift fluorimeter and performed the first successfully direct measurements of fluorescence lifetimes

Ein fluorimeter. Apparat zur Messung von Fluoreszenzabllingungszeiten. Zeit. F. Physik 42:1853-61, 1927
 
Established  concept of lifetime of excited atoms

With Lawrence Hafstad and Merle Tuve built a precursor of modern particle accelerators (1928)

  

Authored the first experimental work about stimulated atomic emission

An experimental test of Schrödinger’s theory. Nature, 1928
 

Optics

Developed Strong-Gaviola method, a differential method for covering surfaces with localized depositions

With J. Strong. On the figuring and correcting of mirrors by controlled deposition of aluminum. JOSA 26:153, 1936 
 

Described the procedure for quantitative application of the knife-edge setup

On the quantitative use of the Foucault knife-edge test. JOSA 26:163, 1936
 
A new method for testing Cassegrain mirrors. J. Opt. Soc. America 29:480, 1939
 

Developed Gaviola-Platzeck caustic test

With R. Platzeck. On the errors of testing and a new method for surveying optical surfaces and systems. Journal of the Optical Society of America 29:484-500, 1939
 
Introduced concept of quality in analysis of covering material  on telescopic surfaces
 
Introduced differential technology in configuration of reflecting surfaces for telescopic mirrors
 
Proposed adaptative optics of telescopes
 
With R. Platzeck designed the first all-reflection optics spectrograph known as Platzeck-Gaviola spectrograph (1943)
 

Developed Platzeck Non-focal Method

With A. Maiztegui & R. Platzeck. Non-focal methods for determining 2nd and 3rd contacts in total-center and angular solar eclipses. Veroff.Finn.Geod.Inst. 36:191-208, 1949
 

Developed methods for measuring curvature radii in mirror surfaces

 

Astronomy

Named Homunculus to a nebula region around star Eta Carinae (1945). Published in Rev. Astronomica 18:25, 1946
 
Demonstrated that Northern Chile have sky of very high quality and proposed the building of an international observatory (1956)
 
Proposed Gaviola observation method for eclipses
 
 

HONORS

Asteroid  Gaviola 2504