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Bernhard Gross

Bernhard Gross, German-born Brazilian physicist (Stuttgart 22 November 1905 – São Carlos, São Paulo State 01 February 2002)
Authored over 200 papers
Published important studies on viscoelasticity and rheology that attained international repercussion such as Gross model of viscoelasticity and a book that became a classical Mathematical Structure of theories of Viscoelasticity (1953)
Noticed that the formalism of dielectric and viscoelastic relaxations are identical
Performed first systematic studies on thermo-electrets
Formulated theory of two-charge of electrets  
With L. Ferreira-Denard discovered the “freezing” of electrical charges in dielectrics 

With L.F. Denard. Efeitos de temperatura em condensadores carregados. Anais Acad. Bras. Ciencias (1943)

With L.F. Denard. On permanente charges in solid dielectrics. I. Dielectric absorption temperature effects in carnauba wax. Physical Reviews 67:253, 1945


Developed first Gross transform which relates the absorption of isotropic and unidirectional beams of radiation
Zur absorption der Ultrastrahlung , Zeit. Physik 83:214-21, 1933.


Developed second Gross transform used for description of the mechanical behavior of elastic materials

With Lela Lacerda derived a new integral transform in rheology (c.1947)

Developed the removable condenser method that permits know quantitative state of surface electrical charges and their evolution within time
Derived formula that relates deformation delay and force relaxation functions
Discovered important charge storage effects in glasses and polymers.

Performed first systematical studies on thermal stimulated currents


Introduced a thermally stimulated current technique to investigate the charge and polarization storage in ice


Performed the first quantitative studies on charge dynamics
With P.S. Toledo developed methods for computing thermodielectric constant and time of system constant
Developed general theory of linear response in electronic circuits theory
Introduced the concept of Compton currents and proved their existence

First to report the existence of large particles in a fall out

With A. Arnon. Eine beobachtung uber die von kernbombenversuchen herrührende Radioaktivitat der Luft. Zeitschrift der Naturforsch. 12:944-5, 1957

With P.S. Rocha. Um novo método para medida das tensões de polarização  (A new method for measurement of polarization tensions). Anais  Acad. Bras. Ciencias 6(1), 1934

Uma nova aplicação do princípio de superposição na teoria dos dielétricos anômalos. Anais Acad. Bras. Ciencias 11(3):213-8, 1939

Sobre uma nova transformação integral. Anais Acad. Bras. Ciencias (1940)

With J. Costa Ribeiro. Sobre um novo método para a investigação experimental dos eletretos (1943) 

Proposed and built the Compton dosimeter  (patented in Brazil, United States & Germany)


Estabilizador de voltagem eletrônico para um gerador de corrente alternada. Anais Acad. Bras. Ciencias (1943)

Novo tipo de contador de Geiger-Muller Anais Acad. Bras. Ciencias (1948)