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Miguel Osorio de Almeida

Miguel Osorio (Ozorio) de Almeida, Brazilian physiologist and biomathematician (Rio de Janeiro 01 August 1890 – Rio de Janeiro 02 December 1953)

Brother of physiologist Alvaro Osorio de Almeida 

Authored about 250 works


ACHIEVEMENTS

Proposed a modified least squares method


Formulated mathematical and physical-chemical theories of electric excitation (1944)


Formulated mathematical theory of cineradiotherapy (1937)


Demonstrated definitely the existence of transversal excitation of nerves

Sur l’ excitation transversal des nerfs. C.R. Soc. Biol. CVIII: 1092, 1931


Developed a power theory of muscular work

A lei da conservação da energia e a theoria energética do trabalho muscular (1916)


Showed the variations of maximal contraction height in function of excitant current


Introduced the concept of an excitation state that can be expressed as greatness in electrophysiology 

Sur la theorie de l’excitation electrique des nerfs et des muscles. Ann. Physiol. Physic. Biol. 3:129-279, 1927


Demonstrated the existence of secondary tetanus and a new index of muscle fatigue


Discovered nicotinic apnea  (1919)

Sobre a apnea produzida pela injeção intravenosa de nicotina. Rev. Soc. Bras. Cien. (1918)

L’ apnée nicotinique. J. Phys. Pathol. Gen. 28:744-52, 1919


Established relations about chemical regulation of breathing and dead space variations (1921)


Established principles for determination of breathing centers excitability 


Established the existence of a latent stage in synkinesias

Sur la periode latente des mouvements associés. Revue Neurol. 28:1193-9, 1921


Demonstrated new respiratory reflexes


Proposed a mathematical theory for breathing regulation and gave laws for pulmonary ventilation  

 

Demonstrated the distraction of arterial and venous waves in single ventricle of toad heart


Showed the richness of carbon dioxide of the air in the marsupium of Marsupialia


Demonstrated the existence of a nervous tonus not only for maintenance of general activity of nervous system but beyond for activity of each respiratory center


Demonstrated the contribution of cutaneous excitations in the maintenance of tonus muscle reflex


Discovered cryoepilepsy, a phenomenon characterized by convulsive muscle seizures due to brain medulla cooling

Sur une attaque epileptiforme produite par le refroidissement brusque de la moelle de la Grenouille. CXV:78, 1934


Performed important studies on chronaxy and suggested a new mathematical theory for it (1925) 


With Pieron described rabbit spinal contracture (1924)


METHODS

Methods for determination of components of alveolar air in human and animals


Original technique for studying in isolation rotatory excitation effects of each semicircular ducts


A technique for double and simultaneous excitation of nervous cells

Sobre a excitação dupla dos nervos. Arch. Bras. Med. 3:313, 1913


A general method for obtaining chronic dilation of dogs esophagi


Sobre a technica de estudo da apnea. Brasil Med. (1914)


Sobre os princípios para um novo methodo de determinação da tensão de CO2 no ar alveolar. Bras. Med. 30:203-4, 1915


Sobre a lei que rege as relações de CO2 no ar inspirado e no ar expirado. Rev. Soc. Bras. Cien. (1917)


With Couto e Silva. Technique pour l’etude des excitations rythmées des pneumogastriques. C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris 94:513-5, 1926


With A. Rocha e Silva. Methode pour la determination de la composition de l’air alveólaire chez le chien. C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris 99:1658-60, 1928


Principes pour une méthode de mesure de la fatigue dans le travail. C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris 109:1164-6, 1931


With H. Moussatché & M. Vianna Dias. Sur le refroidissement brusque de la moelle épiniere par l’action du chlorure d’ethyle et son utilization comme technique de l’etude de l’attaque epileptiforme (1938)


With M. Vianna Dias & H. Moussatché. Sobre o método de estudo dos reflexos labirínticos da rã. Bras. Med. 53:643-6, 1939


With H. Moussatché & M. Vianna Dias. Recherches sur l’attaque epileptiforme produite par le refroidissement brusque de la moelle épiniere. Premier mémoire. Introduction et technique. Rev. Bras. Biol. 1:165-77, 1941


Experiences sur l’execution et la coordination des mouvements dans les reflexes cutanées de la Grenouille. C.R. Soc. Biol. CIX: 452, 1932


Sur une preparation contenant le systeme nerveux integral de la Grenouille. C.R. Soc. Biol. CXIII: 1935

 


HONORS

Doctor Honoris Causa, Université de Paris, Université de Lyon, Université de Argel  

Honorary Professor, Faculté des Sciences de Paris

Member, Composition Bureau of Tables Annuelles Internationales de Constantes et Données Numeriques  

Genus Osoriella Mello Leitão 1922 (Arachnida)

Sicard Prize (1915)




DID YOU KNOW?

Famous French scientists like Gley, Lapicque, Pieron, Laugier, Hadamard, Langevin, Marie and Irine Curie beyond Albert Einstein visited his laboratory



LINKS
http://www.dichistoriasaude.coc.fiocruz.br/iah/pt/verbetes/almmigoz.htm (in Portuguese; bibliography)





BIBLIOGRAPHY

A complete bio-bibliography is available in Revista Bras. Biol. 14(1):1-24, 1954