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José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva

José Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva, Brazilian politician and  naturalist (Santos, São Paulo State 13 June 1763 – Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State 06 April 1838)


Studied in Academy of Mines in Freiberg being a disciple of Abraham G. Werner (1792-4)

Contributed to discovery of lithium since the element was discovred in a mineral sample that collected.  

Identified in Scandinavia 4 new species (petalite, spodumene, cryolite e scapolite) and 7 new varieties of minerals (wernerite, acanthicone, sahlite, coccolite, indicolite, aphrizite and alocroite). Alocroite later became andradite.   

Proposed the use of suffix -ite in mineral nomenclature

Stablished volcanic nature of obsidian

Distinguished astronomical climate from meteorological climate  

Performed systematic phytochemical studies about Brazilian flora involving the research about quina

Described orchid and bromeliad species and varieties from Rio de Janeiro (1821)

Left science in 1821  



Andradea Freire-Allemão 1845 (Nyctaginaceae)

Andradite (mineral)


It is said that he held the best particular mineral collection in that years (1819).  

Became first-minister of Brazil (1822; 1822-23) and prevented that Brazil splitted in little states like other countries in Spanish America. Due to this fact he is recognized as patriarch of Independency in Brazil. 

Suggested a new capital for Brazil and named it Brasilia in 1823 (realized only in 1960!)